Across West Africa, violent conflicts between farmers and herders have been regular occurrences for decades. Some analyses of these conflicts see the driver as competition over scarce resources like water and grazing land. Others point to economic, political and social interactions. They all tend to agree that climate change has reinforced farmer-herder relations in various ways. For example, it has forced herders to change their migration patterns, reduced access to feed and made water scarcer. In Ghana, between 2001 and 2016, more than 68 people were killed in farmer-herder conflicts. Over the years, there has been a mixture of policies to deal with conflict. Some have been “hard” measures like expelling migrant herders and shooting their cattle. Others have been “soft” approaches like dispute resolution and negotiation. But the measures have mostly failed to address the causes of conflict.
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